History of Kevlar oral history interviews

About this collection

The oral histories presented here document the research and development processes that transformed Kevlar from a novel polymer in the laboratory to a life-changing product in the marketplace. Through many surprising twists and turns, the people profiled here managed to make Kevlar serve the complicated and occasionally contradictory interests of the DuPont company, scientific inquiry, the marketplace, and the general public. Their stories are a rich study in the business and technology of innovation. Interviews were conducted by John Kenly Smith, PhD, in 2014 and 2015. Special thanks to the 1916 Foundation, the friends and family of Mary Laird Silvia, and individual donors for support of this project.

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Interview with Ted Merriman, 2015 December 4
After describing his education and early work at the DuPont Savannah River plant, Merriman describes his first project at the Pioneering Laboratory at DuPont Experimental Station in Wilmington in 1969 working on new uses for ceramic aluminum oxide fiber PRD-29. Merriman then details his role in developing a pulped form of Kevlar fiber that made it suitable for use in automobile brake lining in the late 1970s, after it was discovered that the standard material, asbestos fiber, caused a particular form of lung cancer. Merriman developed a process that produced Kevlar fluff using conventional paper-making equipment. Because Kevlar cost about one hundred times as much as asbestos, brake linings had to be redesigned to use very small amounts of it. Working with brake pad manufacturers, Merriman succeeded in producing a commercially viable Kevlar brake pads that had good wear characteristics and were quieter than other types. Brake lining became a significant market for Kevlar. Merriman also describes the extensive testing on Kevlar that DuPont performed at its toxicology facility, the Haskell Laboratory, to ensure that Kevlar did not have adverse health effects., Ted Merriman began working at the DuPont Experimental Station in Wilmington, Delaware in 1969. In the late 1970s, he was instrumental in developing a pulped form of Kevlar fiber suitable for use in automobile brake lining. In the early 1980s, Merriman served as the official 'Product Steward' for Kevlar, for which he worked to address any health or safety concerns. Merriman graduated from the University of Michigan in 1961 with a degree in metallurgical engineering. He worked briefly at the DuPont Savannah River plant working for the civilian nuclear power program before attending graduate school at University of Illinois, where he studied superplasticity., [Description and dates], Hagley ID, Box/folder number, History of Kevlar oral history interviews (Accession 2014.249), Audiovisual Collections and Digital Initiatives Department, Hagley Museum and Library, Wilmington, DE 19807
Interview with Don Sturgeon, 2014 July 30
Donald Sturgeon details his work at DuPont evaluating the properties of Kevlar fibers, particularly for their utility in composite structures. He recounts that while the fiber was incredibly strong in tension, it had relatively poor performance in compression. The peculiar features of Kevlar fibers required that Kevlar reinforced products had to be carefully engineered. Initially, DuPont hoped that Kevlar would find a large market as tire cord. When tire manufacturers opted for steel belts in radial tires, DuPont had to find other markets for Kevlar. Sturgeon further describes his work in developing novel applications for Kevlar. Because Kevlar was difficult to make and process, DuPont had invested an unprecedented $500 million by the mid-1970s. Instead of one large market, DuPont had to develop many smaller applications for Kevlar. Sturgeon worked on developing and promoting weight-saving Kevlar composite materials to the aircraft industry. He was also involved in developing bullet-proof vests and non-cut fabrics. Through these extensive product development and marketing efforts, Kevlar eventually became a profitable product., Hired by DuPont in the 1960s upon completing a PhD in engineering mechanics at the University of Florida, Donald Sturgeon investigated the properties of Kevlar as they related to potential use in composites. He further contributed to the development and promotion of weight-saving Kevlar composite materials for the aircraft industry, and he was involved in the development of bullet-proof vests and non-cut fabrics., [Description and dates], Hagley ID, Box/folder number, History of Kevlar oral history interviews (Accession 2014.249), Audiovisual Collections and Digital Initiatives Department, Hagley Museum and Library, Wilmington, DE 19807
Interview with Irénée du Pont, Jr., 2014 August 15
Irénée du Pont, Jr., describes his early life and later career with the DuPont Company. After World War II, he joined the DuPont Company where for the next two decades he held a variety of jobs. He describes his time on the DuPont executive committee, which he joined in 1967, during which the company had to deal with increasing competition, social unrest in Wilmington, equal opportunity legislation, and environmental regulation. Among other anecdotes, du Pont describes how his father, along with his brothers Lammot and Pierre, set off large fireworks displays at Fourth of July celebrations in the 1920s. He also remarks that he believes Pierre continued to play an important role in the affairs of the company until his death in 1954., Born in 1920, Irénée du Pont, Jr., studied chemistry at Dartmouth College for two years before transferring to Massachusetts Institute of Technology to study mechanical engineering. After graduating in 1943 and until the end of World War II, he served as a test engineer for aircraft engines. After the war, he joined the Dupont Company, where he held a variety of positions. In 1967, he joined the company\u2019s ruling executive committee. He is a nephew of Pierre S. du Pont, the architect of the modern DuPont Company., [Description and dates], Hagley ID, Box/folder number, History of Kevlar oral history interviews (Accession 2014.249), Audiovisual Collections and Digital Initiatives Department, Hagley Museum and Library, Wilmington, DE 19807
Interview with Herbert Blades, 2014 August 19
After describing his education and early work at the DuPont Company on polymer solutions, Herbert Blades recounts his contributions to the development of Tyvek and Kevlar. On the Tyvek project, he describes developing the polymerization process for creating high-density polyethylene fibers after such paper-like fibers had been accidentally created in the laboratory. Blades details his work on Kevlar, for which he developed a commercially viable process to spin fibers from the polymer. Blades describes the three components of the process. First, he discovered that a relatively high concentration of polymer could be dissolved upon heating in 100 per cent sulfuric acid, which is non-aqueous and non-corrosive. The resulting solution had a low enough viscosity that it could be spun rapidly through a spinnerette, a small hole. Next, Blades discovered that instead of spinning the fiber directly into a water bath, leaving a small air gap led to fibers that were significantly stronger. Finally, he determined that the water "quenching" of the fiber occurred extremely fast. His spinning innovations made it possible to spin Kevlar fibers economically and at high speeds., Recruited by the DuPont Co. in 1954, Herbert Blades made contributions to the development of both Tyvek and Kevlar. For Tyvek, Blades developed a polymerization process for reliably making high density polyethylene fibers and is listed as co-inventor on the patent for Tyvek non-woven sheeting, which among other applications is used in building construction. For Kelvar, Blades developed a commercially viable process to spin fibers from the polymer. Prior to his work at DuPont, Blades attended the University of Western Ontario and received a PhD in physical chemistry from McGill University, where he researched gas kinetics. Following that, he completed postdoctoral fellowships at the National Research Council Canada and the Royal Military College of Canada, during which he was recruited by the DuPont Co., [Description and dates], Hagley ID, Box/folder number, History of Kevlar oral history interviews (Accession 2014.249), Audiovisual Collections and Digital Initiatives Department, Hagley Museum and Library, Wilmington, DE 19807
Interview with Wesley Memeger, Jr., 2014 August 19
Wesley Memeger, Jr. details his contribution to streamlining the synthesis of Kevlar, which allowed the timely start-up of the first commercial scale Kevlar plant. In the laboratory, the polymer for Kevlar had previously been prepared by polymerizing para-phenylene diamine and terephthaloyl chloride in a mixture of two solvents, HMPA (hexamethylphosphoramide) and NMP (N-methylpyrrolidinone). Memeger found that a polymer with satisfactory molecular weight could be made using only HMPA, a discovery which made the preparation of Kevlar more commercially viable, as it allowed for a continuous polymerizer in a single solvent system. Memeger recounts that DuPont used HMPA as the solvent for Kevlar production in the early 1970s, but after toxicology tests conducted at the company's Haskell Laboratory raised doubts about the safety of the solvent, DuPont replaced HMPA with NMP and calcium chloride. Memeger describes his subsequent work at DuPont investigating melt processible polymers, which share some properties with Kevlar but lack equivalent chemical and thermal stability, as well as his work on ring opening routes to polymers with novel properties. An accomplished artist, Memeger continues to be impressed by the elegance and simplicity of the Kevlar polymer that produces such remarkable properties., Wesley Memeger, Jr., joined the DuPont Co. after finishing his PhD at Adelphi University in physical organic chemistry in 1966. While at the Pioneering Research Laboratory at the DuPont Experimental Station, he worked to streamline the synthesis of Kevlar using a single solvent, which allowed the preparation of Kevlar to be commercially viable., [Description and dates], Hagley ID, Box/folder number, History of Kevlar oral history interviews (Accession 2014.249), Audiovisual Collections and Digital Initiatives Department, Hagley Museum and Library, Wilmington, DE 19807
Interview with Bob Wolffe, 2014 November 15
Bob Wolffe details his contribution to Kevlar, which primarily involved working with the aircraft industry to develop markets for Kevlar fibers in weight-saving composite materials. Wolffe consulted with aircraft engineers to learn their requirements and made composite materials to meet the industry's specifications. The first applications were for interior, non-structural uses where failure would not jeopardize the safe operation of the aircraft. Over time, DuPont developed significant domestic and international markets for Kelvar composites in aircraft. Wolffe notes, though, that the most important application was in ballistics. Wolffe recounts DuPont's efforts during the 1980s to produce its own fabricated composite parts in an effort to move away from being primarily a supplier of Kevlar fabric. Wolffe attributes the failure of this venture to the company underestimating the importance of design and testing of aircraft parts., Bob Wolffe joined the DuPont Co. shortly after receiving a PhD in chemical engineering from Lehigh University. While at DuPont, Wolffe's work on Kevlar primarily entailed developing uses and markets for Kevlar in the aircraft composites industry. After leaving DuPont, Wolffe started his own advanced materials business and later worked for an armor firm, where high-strength polyethylene fibers were preferred over Kevlar., [Description and dates], Hagley ID, Box/folder number, History of Kevlar oral history interviews (Accession 2014.249), Audiovisual Collections and Digital Initiatives Department, Hagley Museum and Library, Wilmington, DE 19807